origin of ubricaw

The idea of UBRICA came into occurrence way back in the 1980’s provoked by the implementation of Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) by the World Bank, that instituted austerity economic measures in all third world governments. All African member country governments of the World Bank were required to tighten their belts, reduce public welfare, and reduce the size of the public sector by cutting down thousands of jobs and privatize all government owned companies and reduce public funding for education and health. The effect of this program was closure of manufacturing companies in Kenya such as Kisumu Cotton Mills (KIKOMI), Sisal Board of Kenya, Pyrethrum Board of Kenya and many other agricultural product value addition companies and restructuring of coffee and tea business and creation of parastatals to manage some of the remaining businesses such as Kenya Power, certain hospitals like Kenyatta National Hospital and the like.

This SAP evoked massive dislocation of the economy as millions of people lost their jobs and their source of livelihood, living them no option but to migrate from their homeland to the city of Nairobi, looking for greener pastures in the Industrial Area of Nairobi. The industrial area was not such a green pasture and did not have as many jobs as the inpouring immigrants had hoped for and this resulted in them living in squalid living conditions such as Kibera that grew rapidly into the largest slum in the entire world. Coffee and tea lost their value that a lot of people in the Central Province, who depended on these cash crops for their survival lost their means of livelihood. When coffee lost value, my family and I were forced by economic circumstances to migrate from Nyeri to maize and beans growing areas in Laikipia West in 1986. Coffee and tea are not edible to children. Further, this was complicated by government, instituting regulations prohibiting subsistence coffee growers from planting food crops within coffee bushes, claiming that food would degrade the value of coffee. Laikipia West had no coffee to inhibit people from growing food crops. This drama was unfolding in my eyes when I was in high school and it showed me the devastating effect of a centralized macro-economic decision of SAP on micro-economies of a family. It got me thinking deeply how people can protect their micro-economies from such macro-economic problems like the SAP.

I passed my high school exams and got admitted to the University of Nairobi School of Medicine to experience a deep cultural shock of university life glowing with the effect of boom, money provided to students by the government through the Government’s Higher Education Funding Program, supported by the World Bank. The  SAP had not reared its ugly head into the university during my first two years but in the third year, the government suddenly announced that the World Bank would not continue supporting Higher Education and students now had to fend for themselves in all areas except tuition. Students had to bring cash to buy their own food, creating major strife in the students’ community. Given, like many other students, I didn’t come from money, the SAP was to effectively exterminate my career life and I thought I was done for. But before I could give up, I talked to my roommate and told him we could do something to overcome this problem and get money to survive in the university. So, we asked ourselves what we could do as students to be of value to people so as to generate some income. After several weeks of deliberation, we came up with an organization called Raising Awareness Programme Students Taskforce (Rapstaf) with Moses Njuki Ngibuini my roommate and we also worked Bernard Ndung’u and Jane Murugi, now practising doctors.

Rapstaf Actions

The first project we created was to raise awareness about Asthma by going to talk about the disease causes, diagnoses and treatment and its evolution to communities throughout Kenya. The proposal entailed giving talks to high schools in 46 districts in Kenya’s 8 provinces. We walked the proposal to various pharmaceutical companies in Industrial Area for 3 months without success. Ciba-Geigy (now Novartis Pharma), a giant Swiss Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Company specializing in neuroscience and cardiovascular manufacturing, liked our proposal but Dr Richard Muigai, the Medical Director said they could engage us if we worked on neurological diseases particularly epilepsy because they didn’t deal with respiratory diseases like Asthma. As medical students we told him we knew about neurological diseases and we will work on epilepsy as well. So, Ciba-Geigy hired our student company, created letters of support to the Ministry of Health and the District Medical Officers of Health to provide logistics support with four Land Rovers in each district with a driver for each Land Rover. We conducted the program on epilepsy education for the next 3 years and we travelled throughout the country and observed the impoverishing effect of the SAP to the countryside. We formulated a questionnaire to collect data about knowledge attitude and practices about epilepsy in Kenya. Ciba- Geigy hired a bio-statistics professional to analyze the data and presented the results in international conferences in Europe. We did this work for 3 years until we graduated from the university.

As we did the work on epilepsy education, carrying out the work during holidays, we worked in Kenyatta National Hospital during our clinical years,3rd, 4th and 5th years. The SAP had dug its teeth and started devouring Kenyatta National Hospital in the most horrifying way. A lot of services in the hospital had shut down. New slum-like kiosks had emerged at the public bus stop, severe shortages of medical supplies such as medical fluids, tablets, laboratory reagents made Kenyatta look like a slum inside. Thousands of poor people ended up in hospital without cash and the hospital was overloaded, each 30-bed ward admitting at least 100 patients on its admission night. Patients were everywhere, 2-3 patients on the bed and some on the floor. There were no medical supplies to establish intravenous lines for rehydration or even syringes. Family members were given a subscription purchase supplies from wherever they could get them. This left me wondering what could be done about that situation. Meanwhile, Kenyatta National Hospital attracted a lot of international research scientists who viewed its extremely sick population and the even sicker population of the neighboring slums as a convenient sample of “guinea pigs” for research. So, researchers flocked from United States, Canada, England, Germany, recruiting medical students to help them identify research participants who were patients in the hospital or dwellers in the expansive slum and some other parts of the country. These researchers came with a lot of medical gadgets for collecting samples which they took from patients and they would leave the country, soon after collecting the samples, never to return. They would abandon some of the gadgets that they could not transport back to their countries.  Next to the medical school kitchen parking lot, we would see abandoned vehicles there every day. This got me wondering what that was all about and how we could use the money effectively to conduct meaningful research where the results of all that research could be used to improve health delivery in Kenya. Upon completion of my studies form medical school, I was hired for internship with Kenyatta National Hospital. During internship, I received a letter from Dr Renato Ruberti, a neurosurgeon in Nairobi Hospital telling me that the Institute of tropical neurology and neurological epidemiology would be interested in training me more in neurology, neurophysiology and neuro-epidemiology and other neuro-related subjects in response to the work we had done with Ciba-Geigy on epilepsy. I initially resisted to go to France because they were going to teach me medicine in a foreign language. Medicine is already extremely hard in English. However, Professor Ruberti convinced me to go and learn French at Alliance Francaise so that I could get foundational knowledge of the language and subsequently he told me that Le Centre Hospitalier Universite de Limaoges, my receiving organization has got French classes for foreigners.

France

In two years’ time; I moved to France and that is where I saw advanced medical practices. I had three jobs there; one was to work in hospital and see patients as I did in Kenyatta. In this job, I had a 32 beds ward which was never overcrowded with a 6-bed Intensive Care Unit, in the second job, I worked at the University Medical School and in the third job, I worked at The Institute of Tropical Neurology and Neurological Epidemiology. The processes in the Limoges University Hospital differed significantly from processes in Kenyatta National Hospital. In France, there were enough supplies for every patient. No patient was sent home to buy intravenous fluids and other supplies like we did in Kenya. Every patient came with a medical referral note from his or her primary care doctor. Every patient arrived in hospital via a medical taxi or ambulance. Every medical record was properly maintained and all medical reports are typed and sent out to the referring doctor and the primary care doctor by the day of discharge from the hospital. The hospital maintained records of patients and blood and tissue samples for many years. The university held regular meetings several times a week to discuss difficult cases and review journals, so we participated in many conferences organized through the university. At the institute, I was engaged in research publishing. I translated all the raw manuscripts from French to English for publication in international journals such as Epilepsia, Journal of Tropical Medicine, annals of Medicine and the like. I also participated in creating research programmes and looking for research funding to support my work. The research lab stored blood samples collected from many countries by people like myself. Right there, it clicked in my mind what European researchers were doing with Kenyan blood samples they collected on a regular basis from KNH and Kibera. They collect these samples, bring them to Europe and even United States to answer questions that interest them but are of no interest to anyone in Africa. There is so much medical knowledge in Europe about medical problems in Africa but no knowledge whatsoever in Africa about medical problems in Africa. This asymmetry in medical knowledge production in Africa has left Europeans in producing knowledge they care about but Africans producing no knowledge at all. Knowledge produced by Europeans about medical problems in Africa is not relevant to management of diseases in Africa. This knowledge is produced in sterile clean conditions in European laboratories that have all the tacit knowledge about the primary context of the conditions leading to medical problems in Africa completely stripped off. Medical and health prescriptions based on this knowledge do not solve the problems in Africa. They tend to fail when they apply to medical problems in Africa. This intriguing problem got me questioning the reason of all this work. Why would Europeans and Americans come and analyze samples out of context? And then try to reapply the results of those analyses back to the context in Africa. This problem reminded me of the SAP which was a program created as a result of analysis of a sample taken out of context in Africa and then reapplied back to Africa. The SAP was a massive failure that resulted in widespread poverty, disease, disability and death instead of resulting in economics progress in the country where it was implemented. Kibera and similar slums in the world are a living embodiment of a failed program implemented from results of explicit knowledge without tacit knowledge of the context. So, I asked myself how we could build an organization that could build its work based on tacit knowledge that is completely aligned to the context in Africa. From this, I came to understand that medical interventions in Africa are out of context in Africa, relying on knowledge that does not fit, is irrelevant and has no working capacity. By then, Harvard School of Public Health reported that Africa was responsible for 93% of the global burden of disease in spite of aggressive intervention against diseases by the World Health Organization (WHO) for 60 years. The frenzy to intervene against diseases of global health concern in the eyes of the WHO led to creation of deeply funded but single disease vertical Roll Back Malaria Program of 1990, the HIV International Intervention Program and Anti-Tuberculosis Tablet Distribution Program for countries in Africa. The spectacular failure of the SAP provoked the World Bank to prescribe to governments of African countries to develop their own Poverty Reduction Strategic Papers (PRSP). The World Bank had hoped that by requiring government leaders in Africa to write their own PRSP, it would capture the tacit knowledge that is needed to create successful intervention against poverty, disease, disability and death. Unfortunately, the World Bank gave written instructions to the Ministry of Finance on how people in the Ministry should complete the PRSP. As a consequence, the papers submitted from Ministries of Health were just answers to instructional questions on the World Bank document. So different Ministers hired consultants in Washington DC to help them complete the PRSP documents, creating a new and intended consequence of producing documents devoid of tacit knowledge therefore, funding knowledge based in the PRSPS’s escalated failure of economic development to a new level.

Harvard University/Massachusetts General Hospital

It was during my second year in France that I applied for a grant from WHO to return to Kenya to implement lessons that I had learnt from France. The WHO approved the grant but the grant funding organization was the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke of the National Institute of Health of United States. The National Institute of Health required that to receive the funding, I had to find a preceptor in an academic research organization in the United States but not Kenya. So, I called Dr. Daniel Gikonyo of Nairobi Heart Clinic because he had completed his medical studies in the US, who referred me to his physician mentor who in turn referred me to Dr. Andrew J. Cole, a professor of epileptology at Harvard Medical School and Director of the Epilepsy Program in Department of Neurology at Massachusetts General Hospital. I was admitted as a clinical research fellow in the Neurology Department. My research project was to find if there is a correlation between inter-ictoencephalographic EEG spikes and focal-lesions on magnetic resonance images MRI of the brains of epileptic patients. Besides the research program, I was stunned at the speed of knowledge throughput in Harvard Medical School and Massachusetts General Hospital, what was stunning was the conversion of tacit knowledge obtained from patient encounter to explicit knowledge published within one week in a world class, high impact factor, New England Journal of Medicine. It took years for knowledge from other medical centers in the world to appear in a New England Journal of Medicine. Even worse is that none of the tacit knowledge of KNH ever gets published in any journal. The second source of surprise came from the requirement of clinical research fellows such as myself to translate knowledge from the bench to bedside. That means that every research project must be designed in a way that produces a final product that solves problems in medicine and healthcare. Once the product was designed through research, the researcher moved the product over to a technology transfer office (TTO) to where he is taught how to commercialize the product. The technology transfer office was handling hundreds of product ideas every month, some of them being sold out to companies in Route128, greater Boston area and others being span off as independent companies. In the inter-university collaboration among Harvard university, MIT and Massachusetts General Hospital, revealed to me how high technology complex products such as MRI, CT scans and Digital Electroencephalograph and Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Analyzer and many many more high-tech medical equipment are built. All this work got me wondering, where do these people get the money to finance such high-tech programs. Is it a grant from the World Bank or the WHO? I went to the Harvard School of Public Health to find out because I imagined that the only people with money are those from the Public Health for example WHO; but then I learnt that that money does not come from Public Health Funding. That money is gathered by making a private enterprise that translates and commercializes the biomedical knowledge. So, I began to wonder, what does it take to gather such extremely high-risk money to commercialize knowledge and I found out that such knowledge is taught in business school.

MIT Sloan School of Business

MIT’s Sloan School of Business is the leading institution in East Coast of United States in commercializing translated tacit knowledge in the Greater Boston Area. I asked myself what type of knowledge is needed to realize translation and commercialization of knowledge products in a nation like Kenya. Then we can implement such an organization in Kenya to work on tacit knowledge in health and biomedicine. I learnt very quickly that this is a business problem. I didn’t have enough knowledge to solve this problem for Kenya and Africa in general so I learnt from reading that there was no technology transfer organization at any university in Africa and that is why it was not possible to translate tacit knowledge into explicit products. I enrolled for a PhD in Health Business Administration and dove deep into reading a lot of works by business professors from the Sloan School and other universities. The most amazing insights came from such people as Dr. Peter M. Senge in his Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization; Dr. Stuart Hart, in his Capitalism at the Crossroads, Dr. Hernando De Soto in his Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else and Thomas Getzen in his textbook on HealthCare Economics where he stated that Economic development is by far the greatest cause of improvement in health.From Dr. Senge, I learnt in 2004 how to create a learning organization that obtains its knowledge from the tacit dimension, from Dr. Hart, I learnt in 2005 about the formation of capital and how it is working in developing economies such as Kenya to eradicate poverty in Kenya and from Dr Soto, I learnt in 2004 the importance of meta rights for unravelling the mystery of capital. All in all, I learnt that raising funds for high-risk capital requires a company to issue shares of stock initially offered privately to private investors and later sold through the markets to diffuse the investment risk. So I learnt that a project that would raise enough money to translate tacit knowledge in Kenya and commercialize the products of tacit knowledge into new products that can be used to solve problems of everyday life in health and medicine producing universal wealth, wellness and wellbeing would need to raise about 2 billion dollars in about 5 rounds of financing. Such money would be raised through private sales of preferred stocks and public sale of common stocks. All these lessons taught me that to produce health in a country like Kenya, we need to bring together in the same organization, 5 stakeholders of health production comprising:

  1. The local people on the ground in Kenya.
  2. The Diaspora Community.
  3. The Business Community in Kenya and abroad.
  4. The International Development Agencies such as the World Bank, WHO and UN
  5. Academic Research Institutions such as MIT, Harvard, Stanford, Texas A&M.

With the guidance of Dr. Senge, I organized many open space large group meetings to bring members of these different groups together to deliberate how to exteriorize tacit knowledge and commercialize its products in Africa. I referred to this group of five stakeholders as The Pentagon Model of Health and Human Development which I published in my dissertation titled Discovering The Tacit Dimension of Global Health and Human Development. In 2004, I registered a company known as Kenyan Edge Inc. A New Hampshire joint stock corporation which was a for-profit company and a Kenya Development Network and Consortium (KDNC) as a not-for-profit company, which organized those business workshops, the fifth of which was the most transformational held at Kennesaw State University in March 2007.

Kennesaw State University

In the summer of 2006, I received an email from Dr. Dan Paraka from the Department of International Studies at Kennesaw State University requesting for my support to help produce Year of Africa Lecture Series, which was going to start in the fall of 2006. So, Dr. Paraka needed someone to help in identifying leaders who could go to the university to deliver a lecture each week at the university. The lecture series was to end in March of 2007. Dr. Paraka said that he had known about me through the workshops we had been holding to bring together the 5 stakeholder groups. I contacted The Association of Kenyan Professionals in Atlanta(AKPA) whose chairman, Mr. Kihumba Nderitu informed me that the association would be very happy to participate in producing the lecture series. He also told me that he worked at Kennesaw State University in Environmental Science at which point I explained to him that it would be perfect if we can do one of the workshops at Kennesaw State University at the end of the lecture series. I flew down to Georgia and had meetings with Mr. Nderitu, Dr. Paraka and Dr, Adebayo who’s a professor of Conflict Resolution and we all worked out the procedure for recruiting professors for the lecture series and we discussed about holding a 5 stakeholder group 3-day workshop at the end of the lecture series. They were all in agreement. Therefore, Mr. Nderitu agreed to mobilize Kenyan Diaspora Community, Kenya business owners and

Local Kenyans to attend the event. Guided by the work of Dr. Peter Senge, I helped to conceptualize the workshop as an open space business process to help answer the question how Kenyans in the diaspora can participate effectively in Kenya’s development. Dr. Wangechi Gatei, a member of Association of Kenyan Professionals in Atlanta was very instrumental in inviting the Kenyan Business Community through the Kenyan Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA) and Kenya Industrial Estates (KIE). Dr. Wangechi took a flight to London to invite Kenyans in this business community who were attending a conference together at the London School of Economics. The response to Dr. Gatei was phenomenal as she managed to convince the KEPSA and KIE team to show up for the Kennesaw State meeting. This in turn created an avalanche of responses from the entire private sector in Kenya and government agencies. Private companies that showed up included banks such as Equity Bank that for the first time entered the diaspora market, Barclays bank and many manufacturing companies selling textiles. Kenya Government Agencies included Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Planning and Ministry of Industrial Development. The Kenyan Embassy was in full support. The conference was a very successful event with more than 3000 people in attendance at Kennesaw State. Later on, after this event, we had long discussions with Mr. Nderitu and Dr. Wangechi and Hannah Njau Okoro. We discussed a lot about the success of this conference and we talked a lot about upgrading Kenyan Edge Inc. to meet the mandate of the conference such as implementing the idea of commercializing the products of tacit knowledge.

United States to Africa Wealth Initiative (USTAWI)

Dr. Wangechi is the one who suggested we change the name from Kenyan Edge Inc. to United States to Africa Wealth Initiative (USTAWI) stating that the word USTAWI is a perfect acronym to use for what we’re trying to do, transferring wealth of US knowledge to Africa. She said that USTAWI represents prosperity and freedom and is a perfect acronym for US to Africa Wealth Initiative. This coincided with awakening of the World Bank to remittances sent to African countries to fund development back home. In the early 2000’s Kenya received about half a billion dollars in form of remittances later in the decade, Kenya was receiving close to 1 billion dollars in remittances. The World Bank announced that remittances were then close to one half of Kenya’s GDP and Ministers of Finance were asked to think of the diaspora as an extension of their mother nation. Even with all those remittances coming in, Africa’s economies were not developing. The great volume of remittances did not fix the economies of African nations in form of new asset class. Remittances were flowing from the sending countries to receiving countries without provoking unified development. This problem is akin to water flowing from a mountain lake in a river, all the way down to the ocean, passing through many communities but not helping to increase the productivity of those communities. The river does not help to irrigate land for producing more crops nor does it generate electricity to power the communities. When fresh water arrives in the ocean, it changes its properties and is no longer portable. Fresh portable water ends up in the ocean as salty unportable water. Similarly, diaspora remittances end up in the mother country and the value of its development is not evident. Building a dam across the river stops the direct flow of water to the ocean momentarily. A well-engineered dam holds water in large quantities to generate hydro-electric energy that can be used for powering industries. The dam also adds other new properties to water such as irrigation. The mere action of stopping water creates a new form of properties that uplift the economy. The dam creates new forms of intangible representation of water such as energy and irrigation. Electricity is intangible, it cannot be held and has no physical form and so is irrigation and yet it multiplies the GDP. So, the US to Africa Wealth Initiative had to be structured innovatively to capture and fix the value of remittances to create a new form of intangible representation that would multiply the GDP.

The dam for remittances is the shares of common stock. A company that is going to stop the flow of remittances has to issue shares of common stock which would be purchased by the senders of remittances thereby stopping momentarily the flow of money, then fixing the representation of money in common stock by listing the stocks with the stock market. The National Association of Securities Dealers Quotation (NASDAQ) system lists shares of companies to stop the flow of capital and fixes money in new forms of representation. It became clear to me that this is exactly what is needed to multiply the power of remittances going to Kenya and other African countries. In addition, listing a company the stock exchange enables even people in home countries to participate in contributing to building the dam by buying shares. This would unify the flow of remittances from the diaspora with the flow of cash inside the country.

The conversion of Kenya Edge Inc. to USTAWI took place in 2008. It took about 6 more years of trials to embody all these ideas in a company called UBRICA.

Thompson and Grace Medical City

Dr. Isaac Amos, one of my students in the School of Advanced Studies where I was teaching courses in Doctorate of Health Administration learnt about my interest in building systems for health production in Africa called me and said that he would be interested to learn how to build a world class health system for his home community in Akwa-Ibom South-South Nigeria, in the Niger Delta. That was certainly a very tall order. I agreed to help out in Nigeria and I visited the American College of Health Executives (ACHE) in Chicago who gave me ideas of how to build a world class health system. The president of the ACHE also recommended that I contact the American College of Minority Health Executives (ACMHE) which is also in Chicago to discover African-Americans who were interested in participating in projects in Africa. After describing Thompson and Grace Healthcare project, the president of ACMHE referred me to an African-American owned architectural firm, Moody Nolan in Columbus, Ohio, bearing an eponymous name to its founder, Mr. Moody Nolan. After initial hesitation and consultation with the US Commercial Service working with the US Embassy in Lagos and Commercial Service office in Columbus, Ohio, Minneapolis, Minnesota and Washington DC under the recommendation of Honorable Keith, congressman for Minnesota, folks at Moody Nolan agreed to undertake the project and sent some architects to Nigeria for site visits to commence the initial masterplan. Soon, word spread about the project in Africa and I was informed by Dr. Jean Njoroge, a then Engineering PhD candidate at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas that the College of Architecture had announced a 2014 lecture series on Architecture in Health for Africa. I contacted Professor George Mann who was leading the lecture series and is also the founder of Architecture for Health field in the world who referred me to Dr. Madel Shepley who was head of department. Dr. Shepley informed me that a project in Africa is very interesting and would also work well for the Center for Health Systems and Design (CHSD) which is located in the College of Architecture (CoA). Dr. Shepley accepted me as a fellow of the CHSD and soon enough I learnt about another center, Center for Health Organization Transformation (CHOT) that is under the College of Health Science (CHS) at Texas A &M University. This work in CHSD, CHOT and the CoA enabled me to understand how to design and implement a biomedical city. All this work happened under USTAWI.

Ustawi Biomedical Research Innovation and Industrial Centers of Africa (UBRICA)

The work in Nigeria helped me to understand the ultimate question, how do we create a project that generates value in a new way of representation and produces health in Africa? During a work trip to Nigeria to evaluate financial organizations to be nominated as finance coordinators for the project, I travelled to Kenya and visited with Dr. Daniel Gikonyo at Karen Hospital. On learning of my work about a medical city in Nigeria, Dr. Gikonyo told me that we should consider creating that world class health for Kenya. I told him that I had thought about it a lot. It’s just that Nigeria came first. So, he told me it would be beneficial to speak with the then new governor of Nairobi, Dr. Evans Kidero in 2014. He arranged for a meeting with Dr. Kidero during the Karen Hospital Heart Walk that Saturday. After a long discussion with Dr. Kidero, he said he would provide about 300 acres in the outskirts of Nairobi, he would introduce the project to President Uhuru Kenyatta and in order for him to do that, he requested me to deliver to him a concept note the following Monday. I developed the concept note that weekend entitled: Biomedical Research Innovation and Industrial Centers of Kenya called BRIICKs. In an unprecedented turn of events, I never presented the paper to Kidero the following week because he postponed the appointment to attend the Council of Governors meeting in Mombasa and his personal assistant rescheduled the appointment for Friday. I went to Dr. Kidero’s County Office in City Hall building in the company of Mr. Samuel Wachira Macharia, my brother, but Dr. Kidero’s office had a long waiting line. We had to leave to finish many errands before departure back to Minneapolis the next day. The concept note was never presented to the governor. Massive pondering about the concept note in flight to Minnesota yielded critical insight as to the connection between this concept and USTAWI itself. It occurred to me that the BRIICKs concept is a brain offspring of USTAWI, therefore the name would become Ustawi Biomedical Research and Industrial Centers of Africa. This company would issue two billion shares of common stock and 20 million shares of preferred stock to serve as the building blocks of the dam to stop the flow of money so that that money can be used for health production. To produce health, it became clearer and clearer that we have to use the energy produced by the capital fixed by the shares of common stock to create a system that enables people to sell what they produce, a human engagement project that is connected to a distributed network of clinics, all connected to knowledge generated by University, Science and Technology Parks and all connecting to a biomedical industrial city in a mesh network of information system. This was a complete eureka moment because it not only proved how to finance universal health by creating universal basic income and universal wellness and wellbeing through advanced biomedical manufacturing and advanced treatment of diseases. The project would not only convert Kenya into a first world developed nation but also an epicenter for sophisticated manufacturing and a destination medical nation. This concept fitted right well with Kenya’s vision 2030 as described by Dr. Wahome Gakuru. Upon arrival in Mineapolis, I immediately contacted Dr. Wangechi Gatei who was still working at the Centers for Disease Control as a biomedical diplomat in Rwanda to tell her about the exciting news and to ask her to join me to form this company. Dr. Gatei told me that her position in the CDC did not allow her to do that but she knew someone who could help to mobilize the community to purchase shares known as Mr. Michael Karuu. Mr. Karuu, Dr, Gatei said worked as a community liaison person during the 2007 conference at Kennesaw State University. Dr. Gatei shared with me Mr. Karuu’s contact. I called Mr. Karuu who said that it’s a great idea and that we plan to work in every African country. I told Mr. Karuu the plan was to authorize the company to issue 20 million shares of preferred stock and 2 billion shares of common stock. We would mobilize community interest in the shareholders and list the company through a reverse merger process when ready to go to the market, the company would need to sell at least 25% (5million) of preferred shares at 1 dollar per share to create sufficient long runway to invest in a minimally viable product to bring humans into the project who would be the off-takers of the entire project as owners, producers and users. These people would be joined together in a retail network known as Ubrica Retail Clinical Centers, two in each county all connecting together through an information superhighway. This minimally viable product later became Soko Janja after ground research in Kenya and enabled by blockchain money, the Ubricoin. Both Soko Janja and the Ubricoin would work symbiotically to produce the minimally viable product and help engage a new representative economy of wealth, wellness and wellbeing. This minimally viable product plus the shares of common stock would convert the dead capital into live capital and multiply the GDP of Kenya 700 folds to support the construction of the biomedical city. The commons stocks would be listed in the International Stock Exchange known as the NASDAQ in USA.

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